Biden Signs $1.9T COVID/Stimulus Bill Into Law

Biden Signs $1.9T COVID/Stimulus Bill Into Law

March 12, 2021  | Jeff Davis

President Biden signed into law yesterday the latest $1.9 trillion COVID relief and economic stimulus bill (H.R. 1319), now called the American Rescue Plan Act.

Biden made brief remarks at the 2 p.m. signing ceremony yesterday before making a televised COVID address to the nation last night.

The new law contains an additional $58.2 billion in transportation-related aid, which the Transportation and Treasury Departments will begin to distribute as early as next week.

The $5 trillion mark. Based on the contemporaneous cost estimates of the Congressional Budget Office, with this new enactment, the federal government has provided $4.95 trillion in financial aid in the name of COVID and COVID-related emergencies:

Coronavirus-Related Emergency Assistance (Billions of Dollars/10 Years)
Discretionary Mandatory Revenue TOTAL DEFICIT
Enacted Appropriations Funding Reductions INCREASE
H.R. 6074 March 6 8 0 0 8
H.R. 6201 March 18 2 95 94 192
H.R. 748 (CARES) March 27 326 988 408 1,721
H.R. 266 April 24 0 321 0 321
H.R. 133 (CRRSA) Dec. 27 185 677 5 868
H.R. 1319 (ARPA) Mar. 11 0 1,798 46 1,844
TOTAL AID 521 3,879 554 4,954

And that $4.95 trillion was provided by Congress in just a 53-week period, which is an average of $93.5 billion in aid being voted on by Congress every week. To put that in perspective, the total FY 2020 funding provided by the Department of Transportation in 2020 (excluding the COVID aid) was $87 billion. That’s an entire USDOT annual budget every week.

Or, to put it another way, someone recently asked us how much it cost to build the Interstate Highway System, and we calculated that all of the Interstate Construction contract authority ever provided by Congress over the 1954-1996 period, if adjusted for inflation using the OMB composite deflator, would total about $520 billion in today’s dollars. So, in the name of COVID, we have provided enough money to build another 9 Interstate Highway systems, with $275 billion left over. And $275 billion, coincidentally, is almost exactly the total amount (in inflation-adjusted current dollars) that the federal government spent on mass transit over the entire 1957-2017 period, per the latest CBO study.

Erasing the bill’s cost PAYGO scorecard. The just-enacted bill is subject to pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) budget enforcement. The $1.84 trillion cost of the bill is so large that the Congressional Budget Office said on February 25 that the PAYGO enforcement based on the House version of the bill would require across-the-board cuts sufficient to get $345 billion out of mandatory spending programs that only have between $80-90 billion per year of funding, thus requiring the complete elimination of those programs (which include the refund payments and refund offset transactions for Build America Bonds, the $739 million per year in exempt highway contract authority and the fee-funded portion of Essential Air Service subsidies), as well as the Commodity Credit Corporation and many other non-health accounts, for one year.

In order to prevent these from taking place at the end of this session, the House will consider a bill next week (H.R. 1868) wiping the “PAYGO scorecard” clean. If the bill passes the House, it is still subject to filibuster (and possibly a separate 60-vote budget point of order in the Senate), but as with the 2017 tax cut bill (which also would have forced a doomsday PAYGO sequester), enough Republicans are expected to protect the CCC and other programs from devastation to be able to get the PAYGO waiver to the President’s desk. (If not as a freestanding bill, then the PAYGO waiver will doubtless be included in the year-end omnibus appropriations bill or the defense authorization bill or some other must-pass bill. It just can’t ride on a budget reconciliation bill, because Byrd Rule.)

$171 billion for transportation. The new law brings the total amount of transportation-directed aid provided in the name of COVID to $171.2 billion (or double the underlying, ongoing USDOT budget). Funding provided by the March 2020 CARES Act, the December 2020 CRRS Act, and the new ARP Act are shown below, in millions of dollars.

TRANSPORTATION DEPARTMENT CARES CRRS ARP Total
Act Act Act Aid
Grants-in-aid to Airports 10,000.0 2,000.0 8,000.0 20,000.0
Primary airports 9,900.0 1,750.0 7,100.0 18,750.0
GA/non-primary airports 100.0 45.0 100.0 245.0
Concessionaires 0.0 200.0 800.0 1,000.0
SCAS 0.0 5.0 0.0 5.0
Highway Infrastructure Programs 0.0 10,000.0 0.0 10,000.0
Formula funding (§133(b)) 0.0 9,840.1 0.0 9,840.1
Tribal roads 0.0 114.6 0.0 114.6
Puerto Rico highways 0.0 35.8 0.0 35.8
Territorial highways 0.0 9.5 0.0 9.5
Amtrak Northeast Corridor Grants 492.0 655.4 970.4 2,117.8
Coronavirus response 492.0 545.6 860.6 1,898.2
Replace commuter rail payments 0.0 109.8 109.8 219.6
Amtrak National Network Grants 526.0 344.6 729.6 1,600.2
Coronavirus response 287.0 169.7 554.8 1,011.5
Replace payments from States 239.0 174.9 174.9 588.7
Transit Infrastructure Grants 25,000.0 14,000.0 30,461.4 69,461.4
Urbanized Area (§5307/§5337) 22,764.6 13,271.3 26,086.6 62,122.5
Elderly’Disabled ($5310) 0.0 50.0 50.0 100.0
Rural Areas ($5311) 2,235.4 678.7 317.2 3,231.3
Capital Investments (§5309) 0.0 0.0 1,675.0 1,675.0
Bus partners (§5311(f)) 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0
Planning 0.0 0.0 25.0 25.0
Discretionary aid 0.0 0.0 2,207.6 2,207.6
Aviation Manufact. Payroll Support 0.0 0.0 3,000.0 3,000.0
Total USDOT Grant Appropriations 36,018.0 27,000.0 43,161.4 106,179.4
TREASURY DEPARTMENT CARES CRRSA Pending Total
Act Act Bill Aid
Payroll Support Program Grants 32,000.0 16,000.0 15,000.0 63,000.0
Passenger air carriers 25,000.0 15,000.0 14,000.0 54,000.0
Cargo air carriers 4,000.0 0.0 0.0 4,000.0
Contractors 3,000.0 1,000.0 1,000.0 5,000.0
Over-the-Road Buses, etc. 0.0 2,000.0 0.0 2,000.0
Total Grants through Treasury Dept. 32,000.0 18,000.0 15,000.0 65,000.0
TOTAL TRANSPO. AID 68,018.0 45,000.0 58,161.4 171,179.4

Transit apportionments. Calculations from the Federal Transit Administration confirm that ETW’s estimation in last week’s issue of the final breakdown of the $1.675 billion in supplemental federal funding for Capital Investment Grants is the same, to the dollar, as we predicted then. We have since seen the preliminary estimates from FTA on how the bulk of the new money (the $26.1 billion in grants to urbanized areas) will be distributed to some 600 urbanized areas.

Mass Transit Aid to Urbanized Areas for COVID Relief (Million $$)
2018 CARES + C&C % of New ARPA Total From  3 Act % of
Urbanized Area Op. Expens. CRRSA 2018 OpEx Allocation All 3 Acts 2018 OpEx
New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT $14,710.3 $11,017.2 75% $8,400.4 $19,417.6 132%
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA $2,894.5 $2,170.9 75% $1,649.9 $3,820.7 132%
Chicago, IL-IN $2,623.9 $1,967.9 75% $1,495.6 $3,463.6 132%
Miami, FL $893.1 $669.8 75% $509.0 $1,178.8 132%
Philadelphia, PA-NJ-DE-MD $1,603.7 $1,202.8 75% $914.1 $2,116.9 132%
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX $596.2 $447.1 75% $339.8 $787.0 132%
Houston, TX $549.4 $412.1 75% $313.2 $725.2 132%
Washington, DC-VA-MD $2,467.9 $1,850.9 75% $1,406.7 $3,257.6 132%
Atlanta, GA $539.3 $404.5 75% $307.4 $711.9 132%
Boston, MA-NH-RI $1,591.3 $1,193.5 75% $907.1 $2,100.6 132%
Detroit, MI $235.3 $176.5 75% $134.1 $310.6 132%
Phoenix-Mesa, AZ $364.9 $273.7 75% $208.0 $481.7 132%
San Francisco-Oakland, CA $2,193.7 $1,645.3 75% $1,250.4 $2,895.7 132%
Seattle, WA $1,480.1 $1,086.6 73% $867.1 $1,953.7 132%
San Diego, CA $390.0 $314.3 81% $200.6 $514.8 132%
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI $549.9 $412.4 75% $313.4 $725.8 132%
Tampa-St. Petersburg, FL $162.5 $121.9 75% $92.6 $214.5 132%
Denver-Aurora, CO $533.7 $400.3 75% $304.2 $704.5 132%
Baltimore, MD $620.4 $465.3 75% $353.7 $819.0 132%
St. Louis, MO-IL $293.1 $219.8 75% $167.1 $386.9 132%
San Juan, PR $166.9 $125.2 75% $95.2 $220.4 132%
Riverside-San Bernardino, CA $158.8 $137.6 87% $72.0 $209.6 132%
Las Vegas-Henderson, NV $229.4 $172.1 75% $130.8 $302.9 132%
Portland, OR-WA $568.0 $419.4 74% $330.3 $749.7 132%
Cleveland, OH $263.7 $197.8 75% $150.3 $348.0 132%
San Antonio, TX $206.8 $155.1 75% $117.9 $273.0 132%
Pittsburgh, PA $435.5 $326.6 75% $248.2 $574.9 132%
Sacramento, CA $206.7 $155.0 75% $117.8 $272.8 132%
San Jose, CA $454.7 $341.0 75% $259.2 $600.2 132%
Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN $132.7 $99.5 75% $75.6 $175.1 132%
Kansas City, MO-KS $115.9 $86.9 75% $66.1 $153.0 132%
Orlando, FL $139.2 $104.4 75% $79.3 $183.7 132%
Indianapolis, IN $87.6 $65.7 75% $49.9 $115.6 132%
Virginia Beach, VA $98.5 $73.9 75% $56.2 $130.1 132%
Milwaukee, WI $163.5 $122.6 75% $93.2 $215.8 132%
Columbus, OH $157.3 $108.2 69% $99.4 $207.7 132%
Austin, TX $228.4 $171.3 75% $130.2 $301.5 132%
Charlotte, NC-SC $154.6 $116.0 75% $88.1 $204.1 132%
Providence, RI-MA $121.6 $124.0 102% $36.4 $160.4 132%
Jacksonville, FL $101.7 $76.3 75% $58.0 $134.2 132%
Memphis, TN-MS-AR $56.4 $42.3 75% $32.2 $74.5 132%
Salt Lake City-West Valley City, UT $190.3 $142.7 75% $108.4 $251.1 132%
Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN $85.2 $63.9 75% $48.6 $112.5 132%
Nashville-Davidson, TN $93.9 $75.7 81% $48.2 $124.0 132%
Richmond, VA $52.6 $39.5 75% $30.0 $69.5 132%
Buffalo, NY $139.3 $104.5 75% $79.4 $183.9 132%
Hartford, CT $125.9 $94.4 75% $71.8 $166.2 132%
Bridgeport-Stamford, CT-NY $153.5 $115.1 75% $87.5 $202.6 132%
New Orleans, LA $124.3 $93.2 75% $70.8 $164.0 132%
Raleigh, NC $57.4 $43.1 75% $32.7 $75.8 132%
Oklahoma City, OK $26.1 $26.1 100% $8.4 $34.5 132%
Tucson, AZ $82.8 $62.1 75% $47.2 $109.4 132%
El Paso, TX-NM $63.9 $47.9 75% $36.4 $84.3 132%
Urban Honolulu, HI $255.1 $176.4 69% $160.3 $336.7 132%
Birmingham, AL $32.7 $24.6 75% $18.7 $43.2 132%
Albuquerque, NM $85.3 $79.8 94% $32.8 $112.6 132%
McAllen, TX $6.9 $20.2 291% $1.7 $21.9 316%
Omaha, NE-IA $29.0 $24.2 83% $14.2 $38.3 132%
Dayton, OH $78.0 $81.4 104% $21.6 $103.0 132%
Rochester, NY $79.8 $59.8 75% $45.5 $105.3 132%
Allentown, PA-NJ $38.0 $28.5 75% $21.7 $50.2 132%
Tulsa, OK $20.0 $19.7 98% $6.7 $26.4 132%
Fresno, CA $50.8 $38.1 75% $28.9 $67.0 132%
Sarasota-Bradenton, FL $38.8 $29.1 75% $22.1 $51.2 132%
Springfield, MA-CT $46.8 $42.8 92% $18.9 $61.7 132%
Concord, CA $195.0 $161.1 83% $96.3 $257.4 132%
Albany-Schenectady, NY $90.6 $68.0 75% $51.7 $119.6 132%
Baton Rouge, LA $28.5 $21.3 75% $16.2 $37.6 132%
Mission Viejo-Lake Forest-San Clemente, CA $43.8 $42.6 97% $15.2 $57.8 132%
Grand Rapids, MI $46.3 $34.7 75% $26.4 $61.1 132%
Akron, OH $60.3 $45.2 75% $34.3 $79.5 132%
New Haven, CT $181.3 $118.5 65% $120.8 $239.3 132%
Colorado Springs, CO $21.8 $21.6 99% $7.2 $28.8 132%
Knoxville, TN $26.5 $19.9 75% $15.1 $34.9 132%
Columbia, SC $18.6 $15.3 82% $9.2 $24.5 132%
Charleston-North Charleston, SC $20.3 $16.9 83% $9.9 $26.8 132%
Ogden-Layton, UT $66.9 $50.2 75% $38.1 $88.3 132%
Cape Coral, FL $23.3 $18.1 78% $12.6 $30.7 132%
Bakersfield, CA $30.8 $23.8 77% $16.8 $40.6 132%
Toledo, OH-MI $29.2 $21.9 75% $16.6 $38.6 132%
Worcester, MA-CT $24.6 $38.4 156% $6.1 $44.5 181%
Provo-Orem, UT $37.2 $27.9 75% $21.2 $49.1 132%
Wichita, KS $13.0 $14.0 108% $3.1 $17.2 132%
Palm Bay-Melbourne, FL $11.7 $15.5 132% $2.9 $18.4 157%
Des Moines, IA $30.1 $22.6 75% $17.2 $39.8 132%
Harrisburg, PA $28.0 $27.3 98% $9.7 $37.0 132%
Murrieta-Temecula-Menifee, CA $11.6 $14.4 124% $0.9 $15.3 132%
Little Rock, AR $17.2 $15.0 87% $7.8 $22.8 132%
Poughkeepsie-Newburgh, NY-NJ $116.6 $87.5 75% $66.5 $154.0 132%
Syracuse, NY $54.7 $38.1 70% $34.1 $72.2 132%
Lancaster, PA $29.6 $48.1 163% $7.4 $55.5 188%
Madison, WI $52.6 $39.5 75% $30.0 $69.5 132%
Greenville, SC $7.8 $9.7 125% $0.5 $10.2 132%
Reno, NV-CA $35.0 $26.2 75% $19.9 $46.2 132%
Winston-Salem, NC $20.1 $15.3 76% $11.3 $26.5 132%
Spokane, WA $63.1 $47.3 75% $36.0 $83.3 132%
Youngstown, OH-PA $16.1 $12.4 77% $8.9 $21.2 132%
Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC $5.5 $8.8 161% $1.4 $10.2 186%
Scranton, PA $23.8 $17.8 75% $13.5 $31.4 132%
Chattanooga, TN-GA $20.0 $15.0 75% $11.4 $26.4 132%
Port St. Lucie, FL $7.4 $10.0 135% $1.9 $11.9 160%
Stockton, CA $36.2 $33.7 93% $14.0 $47.8 132%
Oxnard, CA $38.5 $41.1 107% $9.6 $50.8 132%
Denton-Lewisville, TX $28.4 $23.5 83% $14.1 $37.5 132%
Modesto, CA $21.4 $16.0 75% $12.2 $28.2 132%
Flint, MI $28.4 $21.3 75% $16.2 $37.5 132%
Jackson, MS $5.8 $8.2 140% $1.5 $9.6 165%
Boise City, ID $11.0 $12.9 117% $1.7 $14.6 132%
Palm Coast-Daytona Beach-Port Orange, FL $19.0 $14.6 77% $10.5 $25.1 132%
Durham, NC $59.5 $44.6 75% $33.9 $78.5 132%
Indio-Cathedral City, CA $28.1 $21.1 75% $16.0 $37.1 132%
Lancaster-Palmdale, CA $37.5 $47.9 128% $1.7 $49.5 132%
Pensacola, FL-AL $12.8 $10.3 81% $6.6 $16.9 132%
Victorville-Hesperia, CA $22.2 $24.8 111% $4.6 $29.3 132%
Mobile, AL $10.5 $8.8 84% $5.0 $13.8 132%
Corpus Christi, TX $31.0 $23.2 75% $17.6 $40.9 132%
Kissimmee, FL $18.4 $13.8 75% $10.5 $24.3 132%
Lansing, MI $46.0 $34.5 75% $26.2 $60.8 132%
Fort Wayne, IN $13.2 $9.9 75% $7.5 $17.5 132%
Greensboro, NC $26.5 $19.9 75% $15.1 $35.0 132%
Bonita Springs, FL $8.3 $9.2 110% $1.8 $11.0 132%
Fayetteville, NC $10.8 $9.9 91% $4.4 $14.3 132%
Santa Rosa, CA $48.1 $36.1 75% $27.4 $63.5 132%
Aguadilla-Isabela-San Sebastián, PR $1.7 $7.5 440% $0.4 $7.9 465%
Ann Arbor, MI $48.8 $36.6 75% $27.8 $64.5 132%
Shreveport, LA $13.1 $11.3 86% $6.0 $17.3 132%
Rockford, IL $16.6 $12.4 75% $9.5 $21.9 132%
Trenton, NJ $87.8 $69.9 80% $45.9 $115.8 132%
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO $6.6 $7.7 117% $1.0 $8.7 132%
Round Lake Beach-McHenry-Grayslake, IL-WI $20.0 $32.7 164% $5.0 $37.7 189%
Lexington-Fayette, KY $25.4 $19.1 75% $14.5 $33.5 132%
Huntsville, AL $4.2 $6.8 164% $1.0 $7.9 189%
Asheville, NC $9.7 $8.6 88% $4.3 $12.9 132%
Davenport, IA-IL $27.7 $20.8 75% $15.8 $36.6 132%
Canton, OH $21.5 $16.1 75% $12.3 $28.4 132%
South Bend, IN-MI $14.9 $20.3 136% $3.7 $24.0 161%
Antioch, CA $46.5 $35.4 76% $26.0 $61.4 132%
Springfield, MO $9.2 $7.6 83% $4.4 $12.1 132%
Peoria, IL $22.3 $16.7 75% $12.7 $29.4 132%
Reading, PA $16.7 $12.5 75% $9.5 $22.0 132%
Fort Collins, CO $19.5 $14.6 75% $11.1 $25.7 132%
Montgomery, AL $7.8 $7.6 98% $2.6 $10.3 132%
Lakeland, FL $7.8 $7.0 89% $3.3 $10.4 132%
Savannah, GA $22.2 $16.7 75% $12.7 $29.3 132%
Lincoln, NE $13.8 $10.3 75% $7.9 $18.2 132%
Santa Clarita, CA $28.1 $21.1 75% $16.0 $37.1 132%
Columbus, GA-AL $5.3 $9.2 175% $1.3 $10.5 200%
Lafayette, LA $5.8 $7.1 123% $0.5 $7.6 132%
Anchorage, AK $46.1 $111.2 241% $11.5 $122.7 266%
Atlantic City, NJ $106.4 $79.8 75% $60.7 $140.5 132%
Eugene, OR $57.2 $42.9 75% $32.6 $75.5 132%
Barnstable Town, MA $118.5 $59.1 50% $97.3 $156.4 132%
Tallahassee, FL $18.0 $13.5 75% $10.3 $23.8 132%
Conroe-The Woodlands, TX $6.7 $9.5 141% $1.7 $11.2 166%
Lubbock, TX $12.2 $9.6 78% $6.6 $16.2 132%
Salem, OR $37.4 $28.1 75% $21.3 $49.4 132%
Laredo, TX $15.4 $11.5 75% $8.8 $20.3 132%
York, PA $13.1 $9.9 75% $7.5 $17.3 132%
Evansville, IN-KY $9.6 $7.6 79% $5.1 $12.7 132%
Nashua, NH-MA $3.4 $5.0 146% $0.9 $5.9 171%
Wilmington, NC $8.4 $6.9 82% $4.2 $11.1 132%
Visalia, CA $14.9 $17.2 116% $2.4 $19.7 132%
Killeen, TX $4.7 $6.2 133% $1.2 $7.4 158%
Brownsville, TX $7.1 $7.6 108% $1.7 $9.3 132%
Appleton, WI $8.2 $7.4 91% $3.4 $10.8 132%
Myrtle Beach-Socastee, SC-NC $4.0 $5.0 125% $0.3 $5.2 132%
Concord, NC $6.6 $6.0 91% $2.7 $8.7 132%
Thousand Oaks, CA $10.5 $18.3 174% $2.6 $20.9 199%
Aberdeen-Bel Air South-Bel Air North, MD $4.1 $10.1 248% $1.0 $11.1 273%
Hickory, NC $3.5 $4.9 142% $0.9 $5.8 167%
Kennewick-Pasco, WA $36.6 $27.4 75% $20.8 $48.3 132%
Roanoke, VA $8.7 $8.1 93% $3.4 $11.5 132%
Kalamazoo, MI $15.7 $11.8 75% $9.0 $20.8 132%
Norwich-New London, CT-RI $6.3 $11.5 183% $1.6 $13.0 208%
Gulfport, MS $5.9 $6.2 105% $1.6 $7.8 132%
Green Bay, WI $7.7 $6.4 83% $3.8 $10.2 132%
Portland, ME $32.6 $53.0 163% $8.1 $61.2 188%
Huntington, WV-KY-OH $8.0 $6.5 81% $4.1 $10.6 132%
Winter Haven, FL $5.7 $5.1 89% $2.4 $7.6 132%
Bremerton, WA $39.6 $24.0 61% $28.3 $52.3 132%
Avondale-Goodyear, AZ $1.9 $9.6 503% $0.5 $10.1 528%
Amarillo, TX $5.1 $9.9 196% $1.3 $11.2 221%
Erie, PA $20.4 $15.3 75% $11.6 $26.9 132%
Santa Barbara, CA $27.8 $20.9 75% $15.9 $36.7 132%
Waterbury, CT $111.1 $67.1 60% $79.6 $146.7 132%
Fort Walton Beach-Navarre-Wright, FL $3.0 $7.8 263% $0.7 $8.6 288%
Gainesville, FL $25.4 $19.1 75% $14.5 $33.5 132%
Salinas, CA $11.6 $15.7 135% $2.9 $18.6 160%
Hagerstown, MD-WV-PA $4.5 $9.4 208% $1.1 $10.6 233%
Deltona, FL $6.7 $8.2 123% $0.6 $8.8 132%
Lorain-Elyria, OH $2.0 $7.9 404% $0.5 $8.4 429%
Spartanburg, SC $4.4 $6.4 147% $1.1 $7.5 172%
Cedar Rapids, IA $9.1 $8.1 89% $3.9 $12.1 132%
Fargo, ND-MN $11.0 $10.4 95% $4.1 $14.6 132%
Olympia-Lacey, WA $36.0 $21.5 60% $26.1 $47.5 132%
Waco, TX $6.4 $8.0 124% $0.5 $8.5 132%
College Station-Bryan, TX $3.2 $8.8 275% $0.8 $9.6 300%
McKinney, TX $0.2 $8.8 3546% $0.1 $8.9 3571%
North Port-Port Charlotte, FL $3.9 $6.8 174% $1.0 $7.8 199%
Gastonia, NC-SC $3.8 $6.5 170% $1.0 $7.5 195%
Danbury, CT-NY $103.4 $60.1 58% $76.4 $136.5 132%
High Point, NC $4.2 $7.6 180% $1.1 $8.7 205%
Vallejo, CA $13.9 $11.4 82% $6.9 $18.3 132%
Santa Cruz, CA $34.1 $25.6 75% $19.4 $45.0 132%
Hemet, CA $7.6 $9.8 129% $0.3 $10.1 132%
Springfield, IL $14.0 $10.5 75% $8.0 $18.5 132%
Muskegon, MI $7.9 $7.2 91% $3.3 $10.5 132%
Clarksville, TN-KY $6.2 $6.4 102% $1.9 $8.2 132%
Manchester, NH $4.1 $6.8 166% $1.0 $7.8 191%
Binghamton, NY-PA $10.1 $10.9 108% $2.4 $13.3 132%
Ocala, FL $2.5 $6.3 252% $0.6 $7.0 277%
Sioux Falls, SD $8.9 $7.7 87% $4.0 $11.7 132%
Medford, OR $11.2 $8.4 75% $6.4 $14.8 132%
Charleston, WV $13.0 $9.8 75% $7.4 $17.2 132%
Port Arthur, TX $2.2 $6.2 282% $0.6 $6.8 307%
Nampa, ID $4.9 $7.4 151% $1.2 $8.6 176%
Topeka, KS $7.9 $6.6 84% $3.8 $10.4 132%
Ponce, PR $2.6 $9.1 346% $0.7 $9.7 371%
New Bedford, MA $9.2 $11.9 129% $0.3 $12.2 132%
Sebastian-Vero Beach South-Florida Ridge, FL $3.9 $6.1 158% $1.0 $7.1 183%
Spring Hill, FL $1.8 $6.5 366% $0.4 $7.0 391%
Beaumont, TX $5.2 $6.3 119% $0.7 $6.9 132%
Lafayette, IN $11.2 $11.1 99% $3.7 $14.8 132%
Champaign, IL $34.4 $25.2 73% $20.2 $45.4 132%
Marysville, WA $10.7 $8.1 75% $6.1 $14.2 132%
Houma, LA $2.0 $6.0 309% $0.5 $6.5 334%
Elkhart, IN-MI $3.2 $5.9 186% $0.8 $6.7 211%
Lake Charles, LA $3.1 $5.3 173% $0.8 $6.1 198%
Panama City, FL $3.9 $6.0 154% $1.0 $6.9 179%
Frederick, MD $5.8 $9.4 164% $1.4 $10.9 189%
Fredericksburg, VA $3.3 $7.5 230% $0.8 $8.4 255%
Arecibo, PR $1.9 $6.1 327% $0.5 $6.5 352%
Tuscaloosa, AL $2.1 $5.8 278% $0.5 $6.3 303%
Macon, GA $6.5 $6.5 100% $2.1 $8.5 132%
Merced, CA $8.4 $9.3 110% $1.8 $11.1 132%
Pueblo, CO $5.1 $6.2 120% $0.6 $6.8 132%
Harlingen, TX $1.2 $6.1 497% $0.3 $6.4 522%
Yuma, AZ-CA $2.0 $8.2 405% $0.5 $8.7 430%
Racine, WI $7.6 $7.0 91% $3.1 $10.1 132%
Fairfield, CA $7.9 $7.8 100% $2.5 $10.4 132%
Murfreesboro, TN $2.3 $6.5 275% $0.6 $7.0 300%
Warner Robins, GA $0.1 $6.0 8538% $0.0 $6.0 8563%
Bloomington-Normal, IL $12.2 $9.2 75% $6.9 $16.1 132%
Leesburg-Eustis-Tavares, FL $5.2 $5.3 102% $1.6 $6.8 132%
Gainesville, GA $1.3 $5.6 445% $0.3 $5.9 470%
Santa Maria, CA $5.1 $12.3 243% $1.3 $13.6 268%
Tyler, TX $2.7 $5.3 198% $0.7 $6.0 223%
Yakima, WA $8.2 $6.3 76% $4.6 $10.8 132%
Athens-Clarke County, GA $12.6 $9.4 75% $7.2 $16.6 132%
Las Cruces, NM $4.7 $6.0 128% $0.2 $6.2 132%
Grand Junction, CO $3.5 $5.4 154% $0.9 $6.3 179%
Odessa, TX $2.4 $6.0 247% $0.6 $6.6 272%
Saginaw, MI $7.2 $5.6 77% $3.9 $9.5 132%
Simi Valley, CA $7.7 $8.0 103% $2.2 $10.2 132%
Columbia, MO $7.0 $6.5 92% $2.8 $9.3 132%
Kenosha, WI-IL $7.7 $7.1 93% $3.0 $10.1 132%
Fort Smith, AR-OK $2.2 $5.4 251% $0.5 $6.0 276%
Mauldin-Simpsonville, SC $0.6 $4.7 725% $0.2 $4.8 750%
Johnson City, TN $4.6 $4.5 97% $1.6 $6.1 132%
Duluth, MN-WI $17.7 $13.3 75% $10.1 $23.4 132%
Burlington, NC $3.0 $6.3 211% $0.7 $7.0 236%
South Lyon-Howell, MI $2.8 $5.0 177% $0.7 $5.7 202%
San Germán-Cabo Rojo-Sabana Grande, PR $0.5 $4.8 1053% $0.1 $4.9 1078%
Greeley, CO $4.3 $7.2 167% $1.1 $8.3 192%
Midland, TX $2.4 $5.6 230% $0.6 $6.2 255%
Greenville, NC $2.7 $5.3 200% $0.7 $6.0 225%
Redding, CA $5.4 $5.0 94% $2.0 $7.1 132%
Utica, NY $8.4 $6.7 80% $4.4 $11.1 132%
Leominster-Fitchburg, MA $16.1 $12.0 75% $9.2 $21.2 132%
Yuba City, CA $6.8 $7.4 109% $1.6 $8.9 132%
Lynchburg, VA $8.4 $7.6 91% $3.4 $11.0 132%
Monroe, LA $5.1 $4.8 94% $1.9 $6.7 132%
Billings, MT $5.1 $5.4 105% $1.3 $6.7 132%
Boulder, CO $42.7 $24.1 56% $32.3 $56.4 132%
Bellingham, WA $29.8 $18.1 61% $21.2 $39.4 132%
Seaside-Monterey, CA $20.5 $15.4 75% $11.7 $27.0 132%
Kailua (Honolulu County)-Kaneohe, HI $3.8 $6.0 157% $1.0 $6.9 182%
Waterloo, IA $5.2 $5.0 95% $1.9 $6.9 132%
Lady Lake-The Villages, FL $0.2 $4.6 2606% $0.0 $4.6 2631%
Dover, DE $18.5 $13.9 75% $10.6 $24.5 132%
St. Cloud, MN $13.1 $9.8 75% $7.5 $17.3 132%
Abilene, TX $3.9 $5.1 130% $0.1 $5.2 132%
Waldorf, MD $5.1 $7.0 137% $1.3 $8.2 162%
Mayaguez, PR $3.9 $6.7 175% $1.0 $7.7 200%
Burlington, VT $13.6 $10.2 75% $7.7 $17.9 132%
Bloomington, IN $7.6 $7.8 103% $2.2 $10.0 132%
Pottstown, PA $2.1 $4.1 191% $0.5 $4.6 216%
Rochester, MN $9.6 $7.2 75% $5.5 $12.7 132%
El Centro-Calexico, CA $6.0 $10.6 176% $1.5 $12.1 201%
Iowa City, IA $13.2 $9.9 75% $7.5 $17.4 132%
Kingsport, TN-VA $2.2 $3.8 173% $0.5 $4.3 198%
Sioux City, IA-NE-SD $5.2 $4.8 92% $2.1 $6.9 132%
Texas City, TX $2.5 $4.3 173% $0.6 $4.9 198%
Jacksonville, NC $1.8 $4.2 234% $0.5 $4.7 259%
Rock Hill, SC $0.3 $3.8 1219% $0.1 $3.9 1244%
Norman, OK $4.5 $5.1 112% $0.9 $6.0 132%
Eau Claire, WI $5.9 $5.7 96% $2.1 $7.8 132%
La Crosse, WI-MN $6.4 $6.1 94% $2.4 $8.5 132%
Holland, MI $4.6 $4.1 90% $1.9 $6.1 132%
Turlock, CA $2.8 $6.5 228% $0.7 $7.2 253%
Wichita Falls, TX $2.6 $4.6 178% $0.6 $5.2 203%
Longview, TX $1.7 $3.8 219% $0.4 $4.2 244%
Gilroy-Morgan Hill, CA $2.9 $4.6 156% $0.7 $5.3 181%
Coeur d’Alene, ID $1.3 $4.5 338% $0.3 $4.9 363%
St. George, UT $1.6 $4.7 287% $0.4 $5.1 312%
Chico, CA $7.5 $6.9 92% $3.0 $10.0 132%
Salisbury, MD-DE $5.9 $7.8 133% $1.5 $9.3 158%
Middletown, OH $1.0 $4.2 419% $0.2 $4.4 444%
Albany, GA $4.1 $3.9 95% $1.5 $5.4 132%
Vineland, NJ $2.3 $6.9 297% $0.6 $7.5 322%
Logan, UT $5.0 $5.3 106% $1.3 $6.6 132%
Lawton, OK $2.5 $4.5 178% $0.6 $5.1 203%
Decatur, IL $7.2 $6.2 85% $3.4 $9.5 132%
Vacaville, CA $3.2 $6.9 220% $0.8 $7.7 245%
San Angelo, TX $3.0 $4.2 143% $0.7 $5.0 168%
Terre Haute, IN $2.7 $4.1 148% $0.7 $4.7 173%
Charlottesville, VA $9.4 $7.1 75% $5.3 $12.5 132%
Slidell, LA $1.2 $3.7 315% $0.3 $4.0 340%
Yauco, PR $0.9 $4.3 455% $0.2 $4.5 480%
Longmont, CO $6.9 $7.7 112% $1.4 $9.1 132%
Idaho Falls, ID $1.5 $4.2 282% $0.4 $4.6 307%
Muncie, IN $7.2 $5.7 79% $3.8 $9.5 132%
Temple, TX $2.7 $3.9 143% $0.7 $4.5 168%
Jackson, MI $4.1 $3.7 92% $1.6 $5.4 132%
Florence, SC $1.7 $3.5 210% $0.4 $3.9 235%
Santa Fe, NM $9.5 $7.1 75% $5.4 $12.5 132%
Mandeville-Covington, LA $0.6 $3.3 544% $0.2 $3.5 569%
Blacksburg, VA $10.5 $7.9 75% $6.0 $13.8 132%
Portsmouth, NH-ME $3.9 $2.9 75% $2.2 $5.1 132%
Anderson, IN $2.5 $3.5 136% $0.6 $4.1 161%
Dover-Rochester, NH-ME $3.9 $3.3 84% $1.9 $5.2 132%
Lawrence, KS $8.8 $7.1 81% $4.5 $11.6 132%
Hanford, CA $4.7 $8.9 189% $1.2 $10.1 214%
Tracy, CA $5.6 $7.1 127% $0.3 $7.4 132%
State College, PA $17.4 $13.0 75% $9.9 $22.9 132%
Port Huron, MI $9.3 $7.0 75% $5.3 $12.3 132%
Springfield, OH $1.9 $3.7 197% $0.5 $4.2 222%
Dalton, GA $0.0 $3.2 inf. $0.0 $3.2 inf.
Fajardo, PR $34.6 $25.9 75% $19.7 $45.6 132%
Lee’s Summit, MO $0.0 $3.8 inf. $0.0 $3.8 inf.
Prescott Valley-Prescott, AZ $0.0 $3.6 inf. $0.0 $3.6 inf.
Napa, CA $9.0 $7.9 87% $4.0 $11.9 132%
Alton, IL-MO $2.5 $3.4 134% $0.6 $4.0 159%
Bend, OR $3.6 $3.9 106% $0.9 $4.8 132%
Manteca, CA $2.2 $6.8 317% $0.5 $7.4 342%
Alexandria, LA $2.9 $3.2 110% $0.6 $3.9 132%
Joplin, MO $1.1 $3.2 283% $0.3 $3.5 308%
Missoula, MT $6.8 $5.9 87% $3.0 $9.0 132%
Bismarck, ND $3.9 $3.8 97% $1.3 $5.1 132%
Kankakee, IL $6.6 $5.4 81% $3.3 $8.7 132%
Livermore, CA $2.2 $4.6 214% $0.5 $5.2 239%
Rapid City, SD $2.3 $3.6 161% $0.6 $4.2 186%
Wheeling, WV-OH $4.2 $3.5 83% $2.0 $5.5 132%
St. Joseph, MO-KS $5.4 $4.4 82% $2.7 $7.1 132%
Homosassa Springs-Beverly Hills-Citrus Springs, FL $1.0 $3.6 362% $0.3 $3.9 387%
Juana Díaz, PR $0.2 $3.6 2039% $0.0 $3.6 2064%
Hattiesburg, MS $1.5 $3.1 197% $0.4 $3.4 222%
Guayama, PR $0.4 $3.8 1006% $0.1 $3.9 1031%
Altoona, PA $5.1 $3.9 75% $2.9 $6.8 132%
Anniston-Oxford, AL $1.3 $3.6 280% $0.3 $3.9 305%
Lafayette-Louisville-Erie, CO $2.4 $3.5 148% $0.6 $4.1 173%
Madera, CA $2.5 $6.4 257% $0.6 $7.1 282%
Battle Creek, MI $4.5 $4.0 88% $2.0 $6.0 132%
Bowling Green, KY $1.6 $3.4 207% $0.4 $3.8 232%
Texarkana-Texarkana, TX-AR $1.8 $3.0 172% $0.4 $3.5 197%
Lebanon, PA $3.9 $3.2 82% $1.9 $5.2 132%
Valdosta, GA $0.0 $3.2 inf. $0.0 $3.2 inf.
Florence, AL $0.7 $2.9 413% $0.2 $3.1 438%
Newark, OH $2.2 $3.3 150% $0.6 $3.9 175%
Anderson, SC $0.8 $2.8 365% $0.2 $2.9 390%
Williamsburg, VA $6.2 $5.2 84% $3.0 $8.1 132%
Mansfield, OH $2.2 $3.1 141% $0.5 $3.6 166%
Lake Jackson-Angleton, TX $1.1 $3.3 291% $0.3 $3.5 316%
Auburn, AL $1.5 $3.2 207% $0.4 $3.5 232%
Wausau, WI $3.2 $3.1 96% $1.1 $4.2 132%
Oshkosh, WI $4.2 $4.4 105% $1.1 $5.6 132%
Cheyenne, WY $1.6 $3.3 208% $0.4 $3.7 233%
Watsonville, CA $11.6 $8.7 75% $6.6 $15.3 132%
Elizabethtown-Radcliff, KY $2.9 $4.4 150% $0.7 $5.1 175%
Sumter, SC $1.1 $2.8 251% $0.3 $3.0 276%
Lima, OH $2.4 $2.9 122% $0.2 $3.1 132%
Davis, CA $8.4 $10.3 122% $0.8 $11.1 132%
Westminster-Eldersburg, MD $1.6 $4.3 264% $0.4 $4.7 289%
Flagstaff, AZ $7.7 $7.2 93% $3.0 $10.2 132%
Jackson, TN $3.3 $3.7 110% $0.7 $4.4 132%
Camarillo, CA $2.1 $4.0 196% $0.5 $4.6 221%
Florida-Imbéry-Barceloneta, PR $0.7 $3.1 428% $0.2 $3.3 453%
Sheboygan, WI $3.8 $3.3 87% $1.7 $5.0 132%
Weirton-Steubenville, WV-OH-PA $2.1 $2.8 132% $0.0 $2.8 132%
Bay City, MI $5.5 $4.1 75% $3.1 $7.2 132%
Owensboro, KY $3.8 $4.8 128% $0.2 $5.0 132%
Decatur, AL $0.9 $2.7 305% $0.2 $2.9 330%
Morgantown, WV $10.3 $8.0 77% $5.6 $13.6 132%
Porterville, CA $3.0 $7.5 254% $0.7 $8.2 279%
Pocatello, ID $1.6 $3.4 218% $0.4 $3.8 243%
Janesville, WI $3.6 $3.3 93% $1.4 $4.7 132%
Bristol-Bristol, TN-VA $1.4 $2.6 186% $0.3 $2.9 211%
Winchester, VA $1.0 $3.0 310% $0.2 $3.2 335%
St. Augustine, FL $3.0 $2.9 97% $1.1 $4.0 132%
Johnstown, PA $7.5 $5.6 75% $4.3 $9.9 132%
Hilton Head Island, SC $0.6 $2.4 377% $0.2 $2.6 402%
Dothan, AL $1.6 $2.7 169% $0.4 $3.1 194%
Lodi, CA $3.9 $5.5 142% $1.0 $6.5 167%
DeKalb, IL $3.2 $3.6 110% $0.7 $4.3 132%
West Bend, WI $2.9 $4.4 152% $0.7 $5.1 177%
Rocky Mount, NC $2.4 $4.4 184% $0.6 $5.0 209%
Elmira, NY $4.5 $3.8 85% $2.1 $5.9 132%
Carbondale, IL $3.0 $4.3 140% $0.8 $5.0 165%
Dubuque, IA-IL $4.0 $3.8 96% $1.4 $5.2 132%
Hammond, LA $0.2 $2.4 1189% $0.0 $2.4 1214%
Parkersburg, WV-OH $3.6 $2.8 77% $2.0 $4.7 132%
Wenatchee, WA $13.2 $9.9 75% $7.5 $17.4 132%
Harrisonburg, VA $4.8 $5.4 114% $0.9 $6.3 132%
Cleveland, TN $1.2 $2.6 218% $0.3 $2.9 243%
Zephyrhills, FL $1.1 $2.8 251% $0.3 $3.1 276%
Hanover, PA $2.5 $2.8 115% $0.4 $3.3 132%
Monessen-California, PA $2.6 $2.6 100% $0.9 $3.5 132%
Michigan City-La Porte, IN-MI $2.1 $2.8 138% $0.5 $3.3 163%
Glens Falls, NY $1.6 $3.5 212% $0.4 $3.9 237%
Jonesboro, AR $1.0 $2.6 253% $0.3 $2.9 278%
Conway, AR $0.0 $2.8 inf. $0.0 $2.8 inf.
Great Falls, MT $3.4 $3.0 90% $1.4 $4.5 132%
El Paso de Robles (Paso Robles)-Atascadero, CA $3.3 $4.5 137% $0.8 $5.3 162%
Casper, WY $1.9 $3.0 155% $0.5 $3.4 180%
Fairbanks, AK $6.6 $4.9 75% $3.8 $8.7 132%
Gadsden, AL $0.8 $2.2 268% $0.2 $2.5 293%
Saratoga Springs, NY $2.0 $3.2 158% $0.5 $3.7 183%
Petaluma, CA $4.1 $3.5 84% $2.0 $5.5 132%
Twin Rivers-Hightstown, NJ $0.3 $4.7 1387% $0.1 $4.8 1412%
Beckley, WV $1.4 $2.3 166% $0.3 $2.6 191%
Longview, WA-OR $4.5 $3.7 83% $2.2 $5.9 132%
Beloit, WI-IL $2.8 $2.8 101% $0.9 $3.7 132%
Los Lunas, NM $1.4 $2.3 161% $0.4 $2.6 186%
Victoria, TX $2.5 $3.1 125% $0.2 $3.3 132%
Mount Vernon, WA $12.9 $9.7 75% $7.3 $17.0 132%
Corvallis, OR $4.4 $7.4 166% $1.1 $8.5 191%
Kokomo, IN $2.2 $2.7 119% $0.3 $3.0 132%
Sherman, TX $1.9 $3.5 182% $0.5 $4.0 207%
Sebring-Avon Park, FL $0.0 $2.5 inf. $0.0 $2.5 inf.
Grand Forks, ND-MN $3.6 $3.9 109% $0.8 $4.7 132%
Bangor, ME $3.1 $4.0 130% $0.1 $4.1 132%
Goldsboro, NC $1.5 $2.3 157% $0.4 $2.7 182%
Benton Harbor-St. Joseph-Fair Plain, MI $2.3 $2.4 103% $0.7 $3.0 132%
Rome, GA $3.7 $5.5 148% $0.9 $6.4 173%
Ames, IA $10.8 $8.1 75% $6.2 $14.3 132%
Lewiston, ME $1.9 $2.5 130% $0.0 $2.6 132%
San Luis Obispo, CA $6.3 $7.1 114% $1.1 $8.3 132%
Pittsfield, MA $4.6 $5.7 124% $0.4 $6.0 132%
Morristown, TN $0.6 $2.1 342% $0.2 $2.3 367%
Midland, MI $2.3 $3.0 128% $0.1 $3.1 132%
Lexington Park-California-Chesapeake Ranch Estates, MD $1.6 $4.3 260% $0.4 $4.7 285%
Jefferson City, MO $2.3 $2.3 102% $0.7 $3.0 132%
Middletown, NY $0.5 $3.3 653% $0.1 $3.4 678%
Carson City, NV $1.7 $3.7 221% $0.4 $4.1 246%
Watertown, NY $1.0 $3.0 302% $0.3 $3.3 327%
Mankato, MN $2.9 $2.7 96% $1.0 $3.8 132%
Kingston, NY $3.2 $2.9 91% $1.3 $4.2 132%
Daphne-Fairhope, AL $0.2 $2.0 820% $0.1 $2.1 845%
Albany, OR $1.4 $2.8 197% $0.4 $3.2 222%
Hazleton, PA $2.3 $2.5 107% $0.6 $3.1 132%
Staunton-Waynesboro, VA $0.9 $2.3 258% $0.2 $2.5 283%
Williamsport, PA $7.4 $7.2 98% $2.5 $9.7 132%
Kahului, HI $14.3 $10.7 75% $8.1 $18.8 132%
Walla Walla, WA-OR $5.5 $4.1 75% $3.1 $7.3 132%
Woodland, CA $3.6 $4.7 131% $0.0 $4.7 132%
Hot Springs, AR $1.1 $2.1 194% $0.3 $2.4 219%
Columbus, IN $1.8 $2.5 142% $0.4 $2.9 167%
Fond du Lac, WI $1.8 $2.4 133% $0.5 $2.9 158%
Manhattan, KS $1.5 $2.9 192% $0.4 $3.2 217%
Titusville, FL $1.9 $2.4 125% $0.1 $2.5 132%
Delano, CA $1.6 $6.0 376% $0.4 $6.4 401%
East Stroudsburg, PA-NJ $3.2 $3.5 108% $0.8 $4.2 132%
Ithaca, NY $12.5 $9.4 75% $7.1 $16.5 132%
Bloomsburg-Berwick, PA $0.8 $2.2 275% $0.2 $2.4 300%
Pine Bluff, AR $1.0 $2.2 228% $0.2 $2.4 253%
Lake Havasu City, AZ $0.0 $2.3 inf. $0.0 $2.3 inf.
Farmington, NM $1.4 $2.2 158% $0.3 $2.5 183%
Cape Girardeau, MO-IL $1.9 $3.7 195% $0.5 $4.2 220%
San Marcos, TX $5.7 $6.4 112% $1.2 $7.6 132%
Sierra Vista, AZ $1.0 $2.2 234% $0.2 $2.5 259%
Cartersville, GA $0.0 $2.7 125377% $0.0 $2.7 125402%
Arroyo Grande-Grover Beach, CA $3.7 $4.8 127% $0.2 $4.9 132%
Lewiston, ID-WA $2.1 $2.3 110% $0.5 $2.7 132%
Cumberland, MD-WV-PA $1.8 $3.3 188% $0.4 $3.8 213%
Lompoc, CA $2.3 $3.8 164% $0.6 $4.4 189%
Hinesville, GA $0.7 $2.2 312% $0.2 $2.4 337%
Uniontown-Connellsville, PA $3.7 $3.6 96% $1.3 $4.9 132%
Casa Grande, AZ $0.0 $2.6 inf. $0.0 $2.6 inf.
Villas, NJ $3.8 $4.4 117% $0.6 $5.0 132%
Monroe, MI $2.8 $2.1 76% $1.6 $3.7 132%
Brunswick, GA $0.0 $2.0 inf. $0.0 $2.0 inf.
Danville, IL $2.6 $3.0 112% $0.5 $3.5 132%
Chambersburg, PA $0.0 $1.9 inf. $0.0 $1.9 inf.
Grants Pass, OR $1.2 $2.3 200% $0.3 $2.6 225%
New Bern, NC $0.5 $1.9 347% $0.1 $2.0 372%
Grand Island, NE $0.6 $2.2 366% $0.1 $2.3 391%
Pascagoula, MS $0.1 $3.5 4923% $0.0 $3.5 4948%
Virgin Islands, VI 1 $4.7 $4.1 88% $2.1 $6.2 132%
Lake Tahoe Region, CA-NV $8.1 $8.7 106% $2.1 $10.7 132%
Galveston, TX $3.2 $4.7 146% $0.8 $5.5 171%
TOTAL, ALL UZAs $46,551.7 $35,958.1 77% $26,085.1 $62,043.2 133%
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The Infrastructure Bill's Twin 2027 Problems

The Infrastructure Bill's Twin 2027 Problems

As of this writing, it appears likely that the bipartisan infrastructure bill will be the law of the land by October 1 and will...

Breaking Down the $3.5 Trillion Budget Reconciliation Plan

Breaking Down the $3.5 Trillion Budget Reconciliation Plan

Now that both chambers of Congress have agreed to the same version of S. Con. Res. 14, the budget resolution for fiscal 2022, the...

Three things the infrastructure plan missed

Three things the infrastructure plan missed

It does include reauthorization of the HTF and a $118 billion bailout from the Treasury’s general fund to meet the needs of the...

DeFazio looks to try again on his progressive transportation agenda

DeFazio looks to try again on his progressive transportation agenda

But Jeff Davis of the Eno Center said the Byrd rule will also require that every dime of the committee’s $60 billion be spent by...

How Will the BIB Affect the FY22 DOT Appropriations Bill?

How Will the BIB Affect the FY22 DOT Appropriations Bill?

How will the funding provided by the bipartisan infrastructure bill affect the regular, ongoing Department of Transportation budget? As...

Federal program to cut bus emissions gets a Senate mandate: Some buses must pollute

Federal program to cut bus emissions gets a Senate mandate: Some buses must pollute

Still, the five-year total of nearly $107 billion for transit was about 65% above what was expected if spending remained flat in that...

What's In the Senate-Passed Budget Resolution?

What's In the Senate-Passed Budget Resolution?

After a 13.5-hour "vote-a-rama,"during which 41 consecutive roll call votes were cast (meaning at least 82 calls of the roll by the poor...

House-Senate Comparison: Mass Transit

House-Senate Comparison: Mass Transit

The table at the end of this article shows programmatic funding totals for mass transit in the Senate-passed bipartisan infrastructure bill...

Fact check: Just how big is the infrastructure package?

Fact check: Just how big is the infrastructure package?

In a separate analysis, Jeff Davis, a senior fellow at the Eno Center for Transportation and the editor of Transportation Weekly,...

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